“The shepherd is not without authority, but it is of a different sort. The shepherd’s authority is based on competence grounded in mutuality, yet this authority requires accurate empathy to be properly empowered. Pastoral authority is not primarily a coercive authority, but rather an authority based on covenant fidelity, caring, mutuality, and the expectation of empathic understanding.”

Thomas C. Oden, Pastoral Theology, 53.